Le confort à bord
La sensation de bien-être à l’intérieur d’un camping-car ne vient pas seulement du design et de l’ergonomie, elle vient aussi du confort thermique.
Ce confort thermique dépend à la fois de la température, mais aussi des conditions d’humidité, d'aération et de la qualité de l’air intérieur, donc de l’étanchéité, de l’isolation et du système de chauffage.
Les deux vidéos ci-dessous présentent les méthodes utilisées pour nos véhicules selon le type : fourgon, profilé ou intégral.
Confort thermique et ressenti
Thermal comfort is a sensation specific to everyone. In winter, it must guarantee a feeling of warmth, and in summer conversely, limit this sensation, or even offer a perception of freshness. Different criteria influence this thermal comfort:
- The ambient temperature (so-called setpoint)
- The temperature of the walls
- Heating mode
- Air circulation
To obtain satisfactory thermal comfort, a sufficient set temperature must be set. We used to say that the comfort ambient temperature is between 19 ° C and 20 ° C.
The temperature of the walls
The temperature of the walls has a great influence on the feeling of comfort. To simply calculate the temperature felt, it is necessary to average the temperature of the walls and the ambient temperature. For an ambient temperature of 20°C:
* Forced air heating: Moving air is used to transfer heat from the heating system to the occupants. In fact, the warm air rises and the cold air remains at ground level. As a result, a stratification of the air is created (warmer at the top than at the bottom) which causes thermal discomfort (cold feet). In addition, convection heating tends to dry out the air, which can be an advantage in a restricted environment such as our motorhomes.
* Radiant heating, infrared waves are used via radiators to transfer heat to the occupants. There is less air stratification and thermal comfort is better. (Alde type radiator system).
Other elements must be taken into account:
* Temperature variations: thermal comfort is better when the temperature amplitude is low. An amplitude of 1°C can be considered acceptable.
* Heat distribution : good temperature homogeneity between spaces improves thermal comfort. This harmony is easier to achieve when several heat emitters are installed . In motorhome several ventilation vents or a judicious installation of radiators is necessary, which manufacturers study from the design of the model.
* The relative humidity of the air (hygrometry): a humidity level between 40% and 60% allows a good thermal comfort. With a high humidity level, we will tend to increase the set temperature. Conversely, there will be a tendency to decrease the set temperature in a drier environment. To better regulate humidity, it is necessary to maintain good ventilation, especially at night in our vehicles, under penalty of significant condensation on cold walls (windshield in particular).
In winter excessive ventilation brings a feeling of cold, moderate ventilation reduces the temperature gradient between high and low.
In summer the heavy traffic by ventilation brings a welcome feeling of freshness.
Depending on his sensitivity, his activity and his outfit, the occupant will also have a variable perception of thermal comfort. If the occupant has a sustained physical activity and is dressed warmly, the set temperature may be lower. However, excessive dressing will lead to increased sweating which reinforces the feeling of discomfort related to the air conditioner effect by evaporation of this moisture. This is the case in the bed with excessive coverage: the humidity induced at the beginning of sleep, leads to a feeling of cold at the end of the night.
The sensitivity of each is also to be taken into account and age is an important variable of this feeling. Personal adaptation to high or low temperatures is possible but requires a fairly long habituation time.